History Origins-1399 | 1400-1499 | 1500-1699 | Since 1700

The History of Florence in Italy: 1400 to 1499

1400: Florence's whole territory is surrounded by Gian Galeazzo Visconti's troops. Luca della Robbia is born.

1401: The competition for constructing the second bronze door at the Baptistery of San Giovanni is won by Ghiberti against Brunelleschi. Birth of Tommaso di Ser Giovanni known as Masaccio.

1402: The death of Gian Galeazzo Visconti allows Florence to get out of a delicate situation.

1406: After a long siege, Florence takes over Pisa.

1416-1420: Donatello creates the statue of Saint George for the church of OrseanMichele.

1418: Brunelleschi wins the competition to build the cupola of the Santa Maria del Fiore Cathedral.

1421: Florence buys the port of Livorno from the Genoese.

1421-1426: Brunelleschi creates the sacristy of the church of San Lorenzo.

1424-1428: Decoration by Masaccio and Masolino da Panicale of the Brancacci al Carmine chapel.

1425: League of Florence with Venice, the Estensi and the Gonzaga against the Duke of Milan.

1427: Creation of the Cadastre. The population of Florence is now only 37,000 inhabitants.

1430: The Florentines fail against Lucca.

1431-1439: From the canters' two stands, “Cantorie” of the Duomo, the Cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore, Luca della Robbia and Donatello confront their artistic visions.

April 26, 1433: Peace treaty between Florence and Venice with the Duke of Milan and his allies.
Cosimo de Medici, known as the Elder, is exiled by the government of Florence.

1434: Cosimo de' Medici le Vieux returns triumphantly to Florence.

1436: Publication of the treatise “Della Pittura” by Leon Battista Alberti, which theorizes Brunelleschi's architectural discoveries and summarizes Florentine art from the beginning of the 15th century.

1439: The Council of Florence approves reunifying the Roman and Greek churches.
League of Florence and Venice against Duke Filippo Maria Visconti.

1440: Florentine troops defeat those of Milan led by Duke Filippo Maria Visconti.

1442-1445: Fra Beato Angelico creates the frescoes for the cells of Saint Mark's convent.

1444: Michelozzo begins construction of the Medici Palace in Via Larga.

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1444-1445: The funeral monument to Leonardo Bruni by Bernardo Rossellino in the church of Santa Croce established the type of Florentine Renaissance tomb.

April 15, 1446: Death of the architect Filippo Brunelleschi in Florence.

January 1, 1449: Birth of Lorenzo de Medici, known as Lorenzo the Magnificent.

1451: The Florentines, allied with the new Duke of Milan, Francesco Sforza, and the Genoese, declare war on Venice and King Alphonsus of Naples after the latter expelled Florentine traders from their territories.
Amerigo Vespucci, the great navigator who gave the New World his name: America, was born in Florence.

1452: Birth of Leonardo da Vinci. Greeks fleeing from the Turks to Constantinople arrived in Florence.

1454: Peace of Lodi with Venice and King Alphonsus of Naples.

1459: Benozzo Gozzoli painted the Ride of the Magi (Cavalcata dei Magi) in the chapel of the Medici Palace, which would later be called the Medici Riccardi Palace.

August 1, 1464: Cosimo de' Medici le Vieux died. He is succeeded by his son Piero de Medici named the Gouty, the father of Lorenzo the Magnificent.

1466: A conspiracy against the Medici failed.
Donatello's death.

1469: Lorenzo de Medici marries Clarice Orsini.

May 3, 1469: Birth of Niccolò Machiavelli, Nicolas Machiavelli.

December 2, 1469: Piero de Medici died. The prominent families of Florence, under the leadership of Tommaso Soderini, confirm their rights to exercise power to Lorenzo and Giuliano de Medici.

1470: Leon Battista Alberti finishes the facade of the Dominican Church of Santa Maria Novella.

1475: Michelangelo Buonarroti, known as Michelangelo Buonarroti, known as Michelangelo, was born in Caprese, in the upper valley of Val Tiberina.

April 26, 1478: Pazzi conspiracy. The conspirators, who include the Pazzi family and the Archbishop of Pisa, Francesco Salviati, with the support of Pope Sixtus IV's nephew, Girolamo Riario, assassinated Giuliano de Medici during Mass in the Cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore.
Lorenzo de Medici, the Magnificent, was only wounded and escaped death by hiding in the sacristy. The city rebelled in favour of Lorenzo the Magnificent, and the conspirators were sentenced to death and hanged.
Pope Sixtus IV excommunicated Lorenzo the Magnificent, the city's magistrates, and imposed a ban on Florence.
But the Synod of Bishops and Prelates of the State of Florence accuses the sovereign pontiff of having been the inspiration for the conspiracy.
The Florentines allied with the Venetians militarily and with difficulty confronted the alliance between the Pope and the King of Naples.

March 6, 1480: Lorenzo the Magnificent goes to Naples and succeeds in signing a peace treaty. The Pope also signed a peace treaty with Florence a few months later.

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1481: After being trained by Verrocchio, Leonardo da Vinci leaves for Milan after leaving his “Adoration of the Magi” in draft form, a work that anticipates the art of the 16th century.

1483: Arrival in Florence of the “Portinari triptych” by Hugo Van der Goes. Ghirlandaio was inspired by it in 1485 for his frescoes in the Sassetti Chapel in Santa Trinità.
Birth in Florence of Francesco Guicciardini.
Fra' Girolamo Savonarola, Savonarola, preaches Lent in the church of San Lorenzo.

1489: Savonarola gives lessons to Saint Mark. Construction of the Strozzi Palace begins.

January 9, 1492: Giovanni de Medici, son of Lorenzo the Magnificent, was appointed cardinal at 17. He would become Pope Leo X in 1513.

April 8, 1492: Death of Lorenzo the Magnificent. His adult son, Piero de Medici, takes power after him.

1494: Charles VIII, King of France and Naples, enters Florence in November, causing Piero de Medici to flee. The Republic of Florence is restored, and Pisa regains its independence.

1496: Savonarola's sermons against lax morals and his call for a general reform troubled the Florentines. Savonarola was instigated by bonfires were books, works of art and luxurious objects were burned.
Savonarola was called to Rome to defend himself against suspicions of heresy against him. The following year he was excommunicated as a heretic by the Pope.

May 23, 1498: Savonarola and two other brothers are tried and sentenced to be burned at stake in Plaza de la Signoria. Their ashes will be thrown into the Arno.

History Origins-1399 | 1400-1499 | 1500-1699 | Since 1700

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